9 Best Bitcoin Mining Pools: Legit Sites (2020 Companies)

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submitted by Basilpop to dashpay [link] [comments]

tried a few mining pools, how come they all pay the same amount of bitcoin?

hello, I tested 3 different mining pools with S9 SE Asic just to see how much each pool pays per one tera hash. to my surprise, they all paid approximately the same amount here is how it went: viabtc: 0.00002261 bitcoin per 1 tera hash slushpool: 0.00002300 bitcoin per 1 tera hash 1THash&58COIN: 0.00002200 bitcoin per 1 tera hash
my question is this, do these pools only pay for our services for solving hashes? meaning do they only pay per tera hashes?
I thought if I join small pools then I am risking finding blocks with the pool so normally a big pool like viabtc that approximately has 4Ehash and pays 0.00002261 bitcoin per 1 tera hash then a smaller pool like 1THash&58COIN with 1Ehash has to pay approximately 4 times more for finding 1 block. or if we consider that a small pool's payment is PPS then the formula could be something like this: (my hash powepool's hash power)*(block reward - pool's fee)=(16T/1E)*(12.5-0.02%)=0.000196 bitcoin what is going on exactly??? these statistics do not make any sense, how is it possible that a small pool and a big pool pay the same amount?
submitted by jintakada0 to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining Profitability: How Long Does it Take to Mine One Bitcoin in 2019?

When it comes to Bitcoin (BTC) mining, the major questions on people’s minds are “how profitable is Bitcoin mining” and “how long would it take to mine one Bitcoin?” To answer these questions, we need to take an in-depth look at the current state of the Bitcoin mining industry — and how it has changed — over the last several years.
Bitcoin mining is, essentially, the process of participating in Bitcoin’s underlying security mechanism — known as proof-of-work — to help secure the Bitcoin blockchain. In return, participants receive compensation in bitcoins (BTC).
When you participate in Bitcoin mining, you are essentially searching for blocks by crunching complex cryptographic challenges using your mining hardware. Once a block is discovered, new transactions are recorded and verified within the block and the block discoverer receives the block rewards — currently set at 12.5 BTC — as well as the transactions fees for the transactions included within the block.
Once the maximum supply of 21 million Bitcoins has been mined, no further Bitcoins will ever come into existence. This property makes Bitcoin deflationary, something which many argue will inevitably increase the value of each Bitcoin unit as it becomes more scarce due to increased global adoption.
The limited supply of Bitcoin is also one of the reasons why Bitcoin mining has become so popular. In previous years, Bitcoin mining proved to be a lucrative investment option — netting miners with several fold returns on their investment with relatively little effort.
bitcoin mining hardware
Mining Hardware
The mining hardware you choose will mostly depend on your circumstances — in terms of budget, location and electricity costs. Since the amount of hashing power you can dedicate to the mining process is directly correlated with how much Bitcoin you will mine per day, it is wise to ensure your hardware is still competitive in 2019.
Bitcoin uses SHA256 as its mining algorithm. Because of this, only hardware compatible with this algorithm can be used to mine Bitcoin. Although it is technically possible to mine Bitcoin on your current computer hardware — using your CPU or GPU — this will almost certainly not generate a positive return on your investment and you may end up damaging your device.
The most cost-effective way to mine Bitcoin in 2019 is using application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) mining hardware. These are specially-designed machines that offer much higher performance per watt than typical computers and have been an absolutely essential purchase for anybody looking to get into Bitcoin mining since the first Avalon ASICs were shipped in 2013.
When it comes to selecting Bitcoin mining hardware, there are several main parameters to consider — though the importance of each of these may vary based on personal circumstances and budget.
Performance per Watt
When it comes to Bitcoin mining, performance per watt is a measure of how many gigahashes per watt a machine is capable of and is, hence, a simple measure of its efficiency. Since electricity costs are likely to be one of the largest expenses when mining Bitcoin, it is usually a good idea to ensure that you are getting good performance per watt out of your hardware.
Ideally, your mining hardware would be highly efficient, allowing it to mine Bitcoin with lower energy requirements — though this will need to be balanced with acquisition costs, as often the most efficient hardware is also the most expensive. This means it may take longer to see a return on investment.
In countries with cheap electricity, performance per watt is often less of a concern than acquisition costs and price-performance ratio. In most countries, operating outdated mining hardware is typically cost prohibitive, as energy costs outweigh the income generated by the mining equipment.
However, this may not be the case for those operating in countries with extremely cheap electricity — such as Kuwait and Venezuela — as even older equipment can still be profitable. Similarly, miners with a free energy surplus, such as from wind or solar electric generators, can benefit from the minimal gains offered by still running outdated hardware.
The lifetime of mining hardware also plays a critical role in determining how profitable your mining venture will be. It’s always a good idea to do whatever possible to ensure it runs as smoothly as possible.
Since mining equipment tends to run at a full (or almost full) load for extended periods, they also tend to break down and fail more frequently than most electronics — which can seriously damage your profitability. Equipment failure is even more common when purchasing second-hand equipment. Since warranty claims are often challenging, it can often take a long time to receive a warranty replacement.
Price-Performance Ratio
In many cases, one of the major criteria used to select mining hardware is the price-performance ratio — a measure of how much performance a machine outputs per unit price. In the case of cryptocurrency mining hardware, this is commonly expressed as gigahashes per dollar or GH/$.
Under ideal circumstances, the mining hardware would have a high price-performance ratio, ensuring you get a lot of bang for your buck. However, this must also be considered in combination with the acquisition costs and the expected lifetime of the machine — since the absolute most powerful machines are not always the cheapest or the most energy efficient.
Acquisition Costs
Acquisition costs are almost always the biggest barrier to entry for most Bitcoin miners since most top-end mining hardware costs several thousand dollars. This problem is further compounded by the fact that many hardware manufacturers offer discounts for bulk purchases, allowing those with deeper pockets to achieve a better price-performance ratio.
Acquisition costs include all the costs involved in purchasing any mining equipment, including hardware costs, shipping costs, import duties, and any further costs. For example, many ASIC miners do not include a power supply — which can be another considerable expense, since the 1,000W+ power supplies usually required tend to cost several hundred dollars alone.
Ensuring your equipment runs smoothly can also add in additional costs, such as cooling and maintenance expenses. In addition, some miners may want to invest in uninterruptible power supplies to ensure their hardware keeps running — even if the power fails temporarily.
asic mining
Current Generation Hardware
One of the most recent additions to the Bitcoin mining hardware market is the Ebang Ebit E11++, which was released in October 2018. Using a 10nm fabrication process for its processors, the Ebit E11++ is able to achieve one of the highest hash rates on the market at 44TH/s.
In terms of efficiency, the Ebang Ebit E11++ is arguably the best on the market, offering 44TH/s of hash rate while drawing just 1,980W of power, offering 22.2GH/W performance. However, as of writing, the Ebang Ebit E11++ is out of stock until March 31, 2019 — while its price of $2,024 (excluding shipping) may make it prohibitively expensive for those first getting involved with Bitcoin mining.
Another popular choice is the ASICminer 8 Nano, a machine released in October 2018 that offers 44TH/s for $3,900 excluding shipping. The ASICminer 8 Nano draws 2,100W of power, giving it an efficiency of almost 21GH/W — slightly lower than the Ebit E11++ while costing almost double the price. However, unlike the E11++, the 8 Nano is actually in stock and available to purchase.
ASICminer also offers the 8 Nano Pro, a machine launched in mid-2018 that offers 80 TH/s of hash rate for $9,500 (excluding shipping). However, unlike the Ebit E11++ and 8 Nano, the minimum order quantity for the 8 Nano Pro is curiously set at five, meaning you will need to lay out a minimum of $47,500 in order to actually get your hands on one (or five).
While the 8 Nano Pro doesn’t offer the same performance per watt as the Ebit E11+ or AICMiner 8 Nano, it is one of the quieter miners on this list, making it more suitable for a home or office environment. That being said, the ASICminer 8 Nano Pro is easily the most expensive miner per TH on this list — costing a whopping $118.75/TH, compared to the $46/TH offered by the E11++ and $88.64 offered by the 8 Nano.
The latest hardware on this list is the Innosilicon T3 43T, which is currently available for pre-order at $2,279, and estimated to ship in March 2019. Offering 43TH/s of performance at 2,100W, the T3 43T comes in at an efficiency of 20.4GH/W, which is around 10 percent less energy efficient than the Ebit E11++.
The T3 43T also has a minimum order quantity of three units, making the minimum acquisition cost $6837 + shipping for preorders. All in all, the T3 43T is more costly and less efficient than the E11++ but may arrive slightly earlier since Ebang will not ship the E11++ units until at least end March 29, 2019.
Finally, this list would not be complete without including Bitmain’s latest offering, the Antminer S15-28TH/s, which — as its name suggests — offers 28TH/s of hash power while drawing just under 1600W at the wall. The Antminer S15 is one of the only SHA256 miners to use 7nm processors, making it somewhat smaller than some of the other devices on this list.
Like most pieces of top-end Bitcoin mining hardware, the Antminer S15 27TH/s model is currently sold out, with current orders not shipping until mid-February 2019. However, the S15 is offered at a significantly lower price than many of its competitors at just $1020 (excluding shipping), with no minimum quantity restriction. At these rates, the Antminer comes in at just $37.78/TH — though its energy efficiency is a much less impressive 17.5GH/W.
Mining Hardware Mining Hardware Comparison
Performance (GH/W) Price Performance Ratio ($/TH)
Ebang Ebit E11++ 22.2GH/W $46/TH
ASICminer 8 Nano 21GH/W $88.64/TH
ASICminer 8 Nano Pro 19GH/W $118.75/TH
Innosilicon T3 43T 20.4GH/W $53/TH
Antminer S15-28TH/s 17.5GH/W $37.78/TH
How To Select a Good Mining Pool
Mining pools are platforms that allow miners to pool their resources together to achieve a higher collective hash rate — which, in turn, allows the collective to mine more blocks than they would be able to achieve alone.
Typically, these mining pools will distribute block rewards to contributing miners based on the proportion of the hash rate they supply. If a pool contributing a total of 20 TH/s of hash rate successfully mines the next block, a user responsible for 10 percent of this hash rate will receive 10 percent of the 12.5 BTC reward.
Pools essentially allow smaller miners to compete with large private mining organizations by ensuring that the collective hash rate is high enough to successfully mine blocks on regular basis. Without operating through a mining pool, many miners would be unlikely to discover any blocks at all — due to only contributing a tiny fraction of the overall Bitcoin hash rate.
While it is quite possible to be successful mining without a pool, this typically requires an extremely large mining operation and is usually not recommended — unless you have enough hash rate to mine blocks on a regular basis.
Although it is technically possible to discover blocks mining solo and keep the entire 12.5 BTC reward for yourself, the odds of this actually occurring are practically zero — making pool collaboration practically the only way to compete in 2019 and beyond.
Selecting the best pool for you can be a challenging job since the vast majority of pools are quite similar and offer similar features and comparable fees. Because of this, we have broken down the qualities you should be looking for in a new pool into four categories; reputation, hash rate, pool fees, and usability/features:
The reputation of a pool is one of the most important factors in selecting the pool that is best for you. Well-reputed pools will tend to be much larger than newer or less well-established pools since few pools with a poor reputation can stand the test of time.
Well-reputed pools also tend to be more transparent about their operation, many of which provide tools to ensure that each user is getting the correct reward based on the hash rate contributed. By using only pools with a great reputation, you also ensure your hash rate is not being used for nefarious purposes — such as powering a 51 percent attack.
When comparing a list of pools that appear suitable for you, it is a wise move to read their user reviews before making your choice — ensuring you don’t end up mining at a pool that steals your hard-fought earnings.
Hash Rate
When it comes to mining Bitcoin, the probability of discovering the next block is directly related to the amount of hashing power you contribute to the network. Because of this, one of the major features you should be considering when selecting your pool is its total hash rate — which is often closely related to the proportion of new blocks mined by the pool
Since the total hash rate of a pool is directly related to how quickly it discovers new blocks, this means the largest pools tend to discover a relative majority of blocks — leading to more regular rewards. However, the very largest pools also tend the have higher fees but often make up for this with sheer success and additional features.
Sometimes, some of the largest pools have a minimum hash rate requirement ù leaving some of the smaller miners left out of the loop. Although smaller pools typically have more relaxed requirements with reduced performance thresholds, these pools may be only slightly more profitable than mining solo.
Pool Fees
When choosing a suitable pool, typically one of the major considerations is its fees. Typically, most pools will charge a small fee that is deducted from your earnings and is usually around 1-2 percent — but sometimes slightly lower or higher.
There are also pools that offer 0 percent fees. However, these are often much smaller than the major pools and tend to make their money in a different way — such as through monthly subscriptions or donations.
Ideally, you will choose the pool that offers the best balance of fees to other features. Usually, the pool with the absolute lowest fees is not the best choice. Additionally, pools with the lowest fees often have the highest withdrawal minimums — making pool hopping uneconomical for most.
Usability and Features
When first starting out with Bitcoin mining, learning how to set up a pool and navigating through the settings can be a challenge. Because of this, several pools target their services to newer users by offering a simple to navigate user interface and providing detailed learning resources and prompt customer support.
However, for more experienced miners, simple pools don’t tend to offer a variety of features needed to maximize profitability. For example, although many mining pools focus their entire hash rate towards mining a single cryptocurrency, some are large enough to offer additional options — allowing users to mine other SHA256 coins such as Bitcoin Cash (BCH) or Fantom if they choose.
These pools are technically more challenging to use and mostly designed for those familiar with mining, happy to hop from coin to coin mining whichever is most profitable at the time. There are even some exchanges that automatically direct their combined hash rate at the most profitable cryptocurrency — taking the guesswork out of the equation.
bitcoin mining pool
Best Mining Pools for 2019
The Bitcoin mining pool industry has a large number of players, but the vast majority of the Bitcoin hash rate is concentrated within just a few pools. Currently, there are dozens of suitable pools to choose from — but we have selected just a few of the best to help get you started on your journey.
Slushpool was the first Bitcoin mining pool released, being launched way back in 2010 under the name “Bitcoin Pooled Mining Server.” Since then, Slushpool has grown into one of the most popular pools around — currently accounting for just under 10 percent of the total Bitcoin hash rate.
Although Slushpool isn’t one of the very largest pools, it does offer a newbie-friendly interface alongside more advanced features for those that need them. The pool has moderately high fees of 2 percent but offers servers in several countries — including the U.S., Europe, China, and Japan — giving it a good balance of fees to features.
BTC.com is another potential candidate for your pool and currently stands as the largest public Bitcoin mining pool. It is responsible for mining around 17 percent of new blocks. Being the largest public mining pool provides users with a sense of security, ensuring blocks are mined regularly and a stable income is made.
Image courtesy of Blockchain.info.
BTC.com is owned by Bitmain, a company that manufacturers mining hardware, and charges a 1.5 percent fees — placing it squarely in the middle-tier in terms of fees. Unlike other platforms, BTC.com uses its own payment structure known as FPPS (Full Pay Per Share), which means miners also receive a share of the transaction fees included within mined blocks — making it slightly more profitable than standard payment per share (PPS) pools.
Another great option is Antpool, a mining pool that supports mining services for 10 different cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Litecoin (LTC) and Ethereum (ETH). AntPool frequently trades places with BTC.com as the largest Bitcoin mining pool. However, as of this writing, it occupies the title of the third-largest public mining pool.
What sets Antpool apart from other pools is the ability to choose your own fee system — including PPS, PPS+, and PPLNS. If you choose PPLNS, using Antpool is free but you will not receive any transaction fees from any blocks mined. Antpool also offers regular payouts and has a low minimum payout of just 0.001 BTC, making it suitable for smaller miners.
Last on the list of the best Bitcoin mining pools in 2019 is the Bitcoin.com mining pool. Although this is one of the smaller pools available, the Bitcoin.com pool has some redeeming features that make it worth a look. It offers mining contracts, allowing you to test out Bitcoin mining before investing in mining equipment of your own. According to Bitcoin.com, they are the highest paying Pay Per Share (PPS) pool in the world, offering up to 98 percent block rewards as well as automatic switching between BTC and BCH mining to optimize profitability.

Electricity Costs
While your mining hardware is most important when it comes to how much BTC you can earn when mining, your electricity costs are usually the largest additional expense. With electricity costs often varying dramatically between countries, ensuring you are on the best cost-per-KWh plan available will help to keep costs down when mining.
Most commonly, large mining operations will be set up in countries where electricity costs are the lowest — such as Iceland, India, and Ukraine. Since China has one of the lowest energy costs in the world, it was previously the epicenter of Bitcoin mining. However, since the government began cracking down on cryptocurrencies, it has largely fallen out of favor with miners.
Technically, Venezuela is one of the cheapest countries in the world in terms of electricity, with the government heavily subsidizing these energy costs — while Bitcoin offers an escape from the hyperinflation suffered by the Venezuelan bolivar. Despite this, importing mining hardware into the country is a costly endeavor, making it impractical for many people.
Finding ways to lower your electricity costs is one of the best ways to improve your mining profitability. This can include investing in renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, or wind — which can yield increased profitability over the long term.
if you are looking to buy bitcoin mining equipment here is some links:

Model Antminer S17 Pro (56Th) from Bitmain mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 56Th/s for a power consumption of 2385W.
Model Antminer S9K from Bitmain mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 14Th/s for a power consumption of 1323W.
Model T2T 30Tfrom Innosilicon mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 30Th/s for a power consumption of 2200W.
mining wholesale website:
submitted by mohamadk to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A tour of the Gridcoin wallet

Hey guys, I thought I would put together an in-depth tour of the Gridcoin wallet software for all of our recent newcomers. Here I'll be outlining all the features and functions the windows GUI wallet has to offer, along with some basic RPC command usage. I'll be using the windows wallet as an example, but both linux and macOS should be rather similar. I'll be including as many pictures as I can as embedded hyperlinks.
Edit: Note that since I originally made this there has been a UI update, so your client will be different colors but all the button locations are in the same place.
This is my first post like this, so please forgive me if this appears a little scatter-brained.
This will not cover the mining setup process for pool or solo miners.
When you launch the wallet software for the first time you should be greeted with this screen.


After that prompt, you should be left sitting on the main overview tab with several fields on it.
From top to bottom:


Now onto the other tabs on the left side. Currently we're on the Overview tab, lets move down to the Send tab. This tab it pretty self-explanatory, you use it if you want to send coins, but I'll go over the fields here:
  • Pay To: Enter a valid gridcoin address to send coins too. Gridcoin addresses always start with an S or and R.
  • Label: Enter a label here and it will put that address in your "address book" under that label for later use. You can leave it blank if you don't want it in your address book.
  • Message: Enter a message here if you want it attached to your transaction.
  • Amount: How many coins you want to send.
  • Add Attachment: Leave this alone, it is broken.
  • Track Coins: This doesn't do anything.


Now down to the Receive tab. Here you should have a single address listed. If you double click on the label field, you can edit it's label.
  • New: Generate a new address.
If you click on an address, the rest of the options should be clickable.
  • Copy: Copy the selected address to your clipboard.
  • Show QR Code: Show a scan-able QR code for the selected address.
  • Sign Message: Cryptographically sign a message using the selected address.


The Transactions tab is pretty boring considering we have no transactions yet. But as you can see there are some sorting tools at the top for when you do have transactions listed.


The Address Book is where all the addresses you've labeled (that aren't yours) will show up.
  • Verify Message: Verifies a message was signed by the selected address.
The rest of the functions are similar to the functions on the Receive tab.


Onto the Voting tab. There wont be any polls because we aren't in sync yet.
  • Reload Polls: Pretty self-explanatory, I've never had to use this.
  • Load History: By default, the wallet will only display active polls. If you want to view past polls you can use this.
  • Create Poll: You can create a network-wide poll. You must have 100,000 coins as a requirement to make a poll. (Creating a poll does not consume the coins)
Here's what the Voting tab will look like once you're in sync


Now onto the context bar menus on the top.
Under File you have:
  • Backup Wallet/Config: This lets you backup your wallet configuration file just in case.
  • Export: You can export your Transactions tab or Address Book in CSV format.
  • Sign message: Does the same thing as on the Receive tab.
  • Verify message: Does the same thing as on the Address Book tab.
  • Exit: Close the wallet.
Under Settings you have:
  • Encrypt Wallet: Encrypts your wallet with a password. (we'll come back to this)
  • Change Passphrase: Allows you to change your encryption password.
  • Options: Opens the options menu. (We'll come back to this)
Under Community you have:
Under Advanced you have:
  • Advanced Configuration: Opens the Advanced Configuration menu. (Not so advanced if you ask me)
  • Neural Network: Allows you to view solo miners project statistics. It will be largely blank if you're not in sync yet.
  • FAQ: Don't touch this, It is broken.
  • Foundation: Don't touch this, It is broken.
  • Rebuild Block Chain: Starts the client syncing from 0. Don't worry, using this will not make you lose coins.
  • Download Blocks: Downloads the latest official snapshot, can help speed up syncing. The download progress tends to sit at 99.99% for a long time, don't worry, it's working.
Under Help you have:
  • Debug window: Opens the debug window. (We'll come back to this)
  • Diagnostics: Don't touch this, it is broken. This has since been fixed. You can use this to see if there is anything wrong with your setup.
  • About Gridcoin: Opens the About Dialog. This gives you your client version and other information.


Now back to the options menu under Settings > Options.
Here we have the options menu main tab:
  • Pay transaction fee: The transaction fee that will be automatically paid when you make a transaction.
  • Reserve: You can reserve an amount so that it will always be available for spending.
  • Start Gridcoin on system login: Pretty self-explanatory
  • Detach databases at shutdown: Speeds up shutdown, but causes your blockchain file to no longer be portable.
On the Network tab:
  • Map port using UPnP: Attempts to connect to nodes through UPnP.
  • Connect through SOCKS proxy: Allows you to connect through a proxy.
The window tab is pretty self-explanatory.
The Display tab is also pretty self-explanatory, with the exception of:
  • Display coin control features (experts only!): This allows you to have a great deal of control over the coins in your wallet, check this for now and I'll explain how to use it further down. Don't forget to click "Apply".


Now that all of that is out of the way. The first thing you'll want to do is encrypt your wallet. This prevents anybody with access to your computer from sending coins. This is something I would recommend everyone do.
Go to Settings > Encrypt Wallet and create a password. YOU CANNOT RECOVER YOUR COINS IF YOU FORGET YOUR PASSWORD.
Your wallet will close and you will have to start it up again. This time when it opens up, you should have a new button in the bottom left. Now if you want to stake you will have to unlock your wallet. Notice the "For staking only" box that is checked by default. If you want to send a beacon for solo mining or vote, you will need to uncheck this box.


Before we continue, Let's wait until we're in sync. Depending on your internet speeds, this could take from several hours to over a day or 2. This can be sped up by using Advanced > Download Blocks, but this can still take several hours.
This is what an in-sync client should look like. Notice the green check to the right of the Receive tab. All of these icons give you information when you hover your mouse over them.
The lock
The arrow tells you if you're staking. If you aren't staking, it will tell you why you're not staking. If you are staking it will give you an estimated staking time. Staking is a very random process and this is only an estimate, not a countdown.
The connection bars tell you how many connections to the network you have.
The check tells you if you're in sync.


Now I've said "stake" about a million times so far and haven't explained it. Gridcoin is a Proof of Stake (PoS) coin.
Unlike bitcoins Proof of Work (PoW), PoS uses little system resources, so you can use those resources for scientific work. PoS works by users "Staking" with their balance. The higher the balance, the higher the chance to create, or "stake" a block. This means you need to have a positive balance in order to stake. Theoretically, you can stake with any amount over 0.0125 coins, but in practice it's recommended to have at least 2000 coins to reliably stake.
Staking is important for solo miners, because they get paid when they stake. Pool miners don't need to stake in order to get paid however. So if you want to solo mine, you'll need to buy some coins from an exchange or start in the pool first and move to solo when you have enough coins.
In addition to Research Rewards for miners, anyone who holds coins (solo miners, pool miners, and investors) gets 1.5% interest annually on top of your coins. So it can be beneficial for pool miners to stake as well.
Here is a snippet of what a research rewards transaction looks like from my personal wallet. I have a label on that address of "Payout address" as you can see here.


At this point you'll need some coins. You can use one of our faucets like this one or this one to test coin control out.
First let me explain what a UTXO is. UTXO stands for Unspent Transaction Output. Say you have an address with 0 coins in it, and someone sends you 10 coins like I've done here. Those 10 coins are added to that address in the form of a UTXO, so we have an address with one 10 coin UTXO in it.
Now we receive another 5 coins at the same address, like so. Now we have an address with one 10 coin UTXO and one 5 coin UTXO. But how do we view how our addresses are split up into different UTXOs?
Earlier we checked the "Display coin control features" box in Settings > Options > Display. Once that's checked you'll notice there's another section in the Send tab labeled "Coin Control Features". If you click the "Inputs" button, you'll get a new window. And look, there's our 2 UTXOs.
All UTXOs try to stake separately from each other, and remember that the chance a UTXO has to stake is proportional to it's size. So in this situation, my 10 coin UTXO has twice the chance to stake as my 5 coin UTXO. Now wallets, especially ones that make a lot of transactions, can get very fragmented over time. I've fragmented my wallet a little so I can show you what I'm talking about.
How do we clean this up? We can consolidate all this into one UTXO by checking all the boxes on the left and selecting OK.
Now pay attention to the fields on the top:
  • Quantity: The total amount of UTXOs we have selected.
  • Amount: The total amount of coins we have selected.
  • Fee: How much it would cost in fees to send all those UTXOs (more UTXOs = more transaction data = more fees)
  • After Fee: Amount - Fees.
  • Bytes: How large the transaction is in bytes.
  • Priority: How your client would prioritize making a transaction with this specific set of UTXOs selected had you not used coin control.
  • Low Output: If your transaction is less than 0.01 coins (I think).
  • Change: What you will get back in change.
  • custom change address: You can set the address you get your change back at, by default it will generate a new address.
So let's fill out our transaction so we end up with 1 UTXO at the end.
In "Pay To:" Just put any address in your wallet, and for the amount put what it has listed in the "After Fee" Field. Just like this.
Notice how we get no change back.
Now click "Send", we'll be prompted to enter our passphrase and we're asked if we want to pay the fee, go ahead and click "Yes".
Now if we go back to the Overview tab we get this funky icon. If you hover your mouse over it, it says "Payment to yourself", and the -0.0002 GRC is the network transaction fee.
(Ignore the first one, that was me fragmenting my wallet)
Now if we look at the Coin Control menu, we can see that we've slimmed our wallet down from 7 UTXOs to 1.
Now why would you want to use coin control?
2 Situations:
  1. UTXOs less than 0.0125 coins cannot stake. So you can combine a lot of tiny, useless UTXOs into 1 bigger one that can stake.
  2. After a UTXO stakes, it cannot stake for another 16 hours. So if you have 1 large UTXO that is big enough to stake more than once every 16 hours, you can split it into smaller UTXOs which can allow you to stake slightly more often.
  3. By default, the wallet will always generate a new address for change, which can make your wallet get very messy if you're sending lots of transactions. Keep in mind that more UTXOs = larger transactions = more fees.
Sidenote - When you stake, you will earn all research rewards owed reguardless of which UTXO staked. However, you'll earn the 1.5% interest for that UTXO. Not your whole wallet.


A fork is when the network splits into multiple chains, with part of the network on each chain. A fork can happen when 2 blocks are staked by different clients at the same time or very close to the same time, or when your client rejects a block that should have been accepted due to a bug in the code or through some other unique circumstance.
How do I know if I'm on a fork?
Generally you can spot a fork by looking at the difficulty on your Overview tab. With current network conditions, if your difficulty is below 0.1, then you're probably on a fork.
You can confirm this by comparing your blockhash with someone elses, like a block explorer.
Go to [Help > Debug Window > Console]. This is the RPC console, we can use to do a lot of things. You can type help to get a list of commands, and you can type help [command you need help with] (without the brackets) to get information on a command. We'll be using the getblockhash [block number] command.
Type getblockhash [block number] in the console, but replace [block number] with the number listed next to the "Blocks:" field on the Overview tab.
This will spit out a crazy string of characters, this is the "blockhash" of that block.
Now head over to your favorite block explorer, I'll be using gridcoinstats. Find the block that you have the hash for, use the search bar or just find it in the list of blocks.
Now compare your hash with the one gridcoinstats gives you. Does it match?
If it matches, then you're probably good to go. If it matches but you still think you're on a fork, then you can try other block explorers, such as gridcoin.network or neuralminer.io.
If it doesn't match, then you need to try to get off that fork.
How do I get off a fork?
  1. Just wait for an hour or two. 95% of the time your client is able to recover itself from a fork given a little time.
  2. Restart the client, wait a few minutes to see if it fixes itself. If it doesn't restart again and wait. Repeat about 4 or 5 times.
  3. Find where the fork started. Using the getblockhash command, go back some blocks and compare hashes with that on a block explorer so you can narrow down what the last block you and the block explorer had in common. Then use reorganize [the last block hash you had in common]. Note that reorganize takes a blockhash, not a block number.
  4. Use Advanced > Download Blocks.
  5. If none of this works, you can take a look at social media (reddit/steemit) and see what other people are saying.


Your configuration file depends on your operation system:
  • On Windows: %appdata%\GridcoinResearch\
  • On Linux: ~/.GridcoinResearch/
  • On MacOS: /Users/USERNAME/Library/Application/Support/GridcoinResearch/
And it should look like this.
If you open up your gridcoinresearch.conf, you'll see the default one it generated. Note that if you entered your email earlier, the first line will have your email on it instead of "investor". If you decided you want to solo mine but didn't enter your email when you first started the wallet, go ahead and put your email on the first line in place of "investor". If you're a pool miner, just leave it as "investor".
Next, it's recommended that you use the addnodes on the gridcoin wiki. So our gridcoinresearch.conf will look like this.
A useful line for solo miners is PrimaryCPID=[YOUR CPID]. Sometimes your wallet can pick up on the wrong CPID so it's good to have that in there if you're solo mining.


A listening node is a node that listens for blocks and transactions broadcasted from nodes and forwards them on to other nodes. For example, during the syncing process when you're getting your node running for the first time, you're downloading all the blocks from listening nodes. So running a listening node helps support the network.
Running a gridcoin listening node is simple. All you need to do is add listen=1 to your gridcoinresearch.conf and you need to forward port 32749 on your router.
If you don't know how to port forward, I'd suggest googling "How to port forward [your router manufacturer]".


Gridcoin.us Official Website
Gridcoin.science Unofficial Website
Gridcoinstats.eu Block Explorer
NeuralMiner.io Block Explorer
Gridcoinstats.eu Faucet
Gridcoin.ch Faucet
Gridcoin Wiki
Gridcoin Github
Arikado Pool
And that's all I have for now!
I plan to keep this post up-to-date with changes in the client. So if anyone has any suggestions, have clarifications they want made, or maybe I got something wrong, then please feel free to leave a comment below or PM me!
submitted by Personthingman2 to gridcoin [link] [comments]

Working of Cryptocurrency Mining pool

Working of Cryptocurrency Mining pool
Source - https://coinscapture.com/blog/working-of-cryptocurrency-mining-pool

Working of Cryptocurrency Mining pool
Cryptocurrency is the most discussed and trending topic on various internet forums, communities, and social media. Many individuals are keen to enter the cryptoworld and unfold all the profits within it. Cryptocurrency can be bought from an exchange or mined through the mining pools. In this guide, we’ll understand the working of the cryptocurrency mining pool.
What is Mining Pool?
Cryptocurrency mining is the same as mining the metals from the earth. The individual or company that digs out the metal from the earth becomes the owner similarly the individual who discovers first the valid hash using the computational power becomes the owner and earns a block reward. The crypto mining can either be done solo using his/her own mining devices or through a mining pool.
As more and more enthusiasts participated in mining to earn a block reward became equally difficult and it would take centuries for a miner to generate a block because the probability of finding the hash value first and generating a block is directly proportional to the computing power in the network. The smaller the computational power the smaller is the chance of generating the next block. Hence a solution, to this problem mining pools were formed.
A mining pool is a group of miners pooling/combining their computational power together in order to mine a cryptocurrency quickly and earn a block reward consistently. Each contributing miner earns reward according to their investment in processing power. The working of mining pools depends on certain algorithms that are designed to check the authenticity and validity of the transactions. Miners are required to solve a complex math problem that requires millions of calculations with the help of High computational power. When the miners combined their computational power the block generation process happens at a much faster rate as compared to a single mining rig. For more understanding of mining please refer our previous blog (What is Bitcoin mining?)
Types of Mining Pools
  • Single mining pools: This type of mining pool mine only single cryptocurrency
  • Multi-currency pools: This type of mining pool mine different cryptocurrencies and gives the miner a chance to choose the cryptocurrency for mining timely depending rewards points offered.
  • Cloud mining pools: Cloud-based mining can be combined with mining pools by making an online contract. This type of mining pool allows individuals to participate in mining activity without even buying specialized equipment.
How rewards are shared on mining pools?
The rewards shared after successfully adding the new block to the blockchain vary from currency to currency. The reward sharings also depend on the factors like mining difficulty, the exchange rate between different coins, the hash rate and the block generation time. Some of the followed reward structures are as follows:
  1. Pay-per-share (PPS): This method offers instant payout depending on the miner’s contribution to finding the block. The payment is done using the pool's existing balance and can be withdrawn immediately.
  2. Shared Maximum Pay Per Share (SMPPS): It is the same as Pay-per-share (PPS) but limits the payout to the maximum that the pool has earned.
  3. Equalized Shared Maximum Pay Per Share (ESMPPS): This method is similar to (SMPPS) but the rewards are distributed equally among all miners in the pool.
  4. Proportional (PROP): The miner is rewarded the share that is proportional to the number of shares he has in the pool with respect to the pool’s total shares
Advantages of mining pools
  • Mining pools offer a more stable income
  • Mining pools lower costs of mining
  • Mining pools helps in generating a higher income
Disadvantages of Mining pools
  • There may be some interruptions in the Mining pools
  • There is a sharing of block rewards
  • There may be sometimes unfavorable pool reward structure
Widely-Used Mining Pools
  • Antpool: The largest pool available on the web offering mining of cryptocurrencies like BTC, BCH, LTC, ETH, ETC, ZEC, DASH, SCC, XMC, BTM
  • Minergate.com: A public mining pool mining of cryptocurrencies like ETH, ETC, ZEC, BTG, BCN, XMR, XMO, FCN, XDN, AEON
  • Btc.com: The most popular mining pool among miners offering cryptocurrencies BTC, BCH, ETH, ETC, LTC, UBTC, DCR to mine
  • BTCC: The largest Chinese pool in the world mining 7% of all existing blocks.
  • Slush: The most trusted mining pools on internet mining 7% of all available blocks.
Mining pools can definitely be a change to the entire mining process offering the highest and the real income without spending years depending on the computational powers. Hence, investing in a mining pool can be beneficial but always choose the mining pool that fits your personal needs and facilities.
submitted by coinscapturecom to u/coinscapturecom [link] [comments]

List of Today's and Tomorrow's Upcoming Events

I will be bringing you upcoming events/announcements every day. If you want improvements to this post, please mention houseme in the comments. We will make improvements based on your feedback.
https://kryptocal.com | /kryptocal | Android | iOS | Telegram Interactive Bot (add cryptocalapp_bot) | Telegram Channel @kryptocal


If you like an event to be added, click Submit Event, and we will do the rest.


ETAC Convention June 29, 2019
DeepBrain Chain(DBC) Web Wallet June 29, 2019
Hardware Wallet June 30, 2019
IOS App June 30, 2019
Android Mobile SDK Beta June 30, 2019
Impleum Lite Wallet June 30, 2019
NEM(XEM) Catapult Software June 30, 2019
Stellar(XLM) Open-source Wallet SDK June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) Video Calls Launch June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) Trading Global Packages June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) E-wallet Integration June 30, 2019
FunFair(FUN) New Wallet Integration June 30, 2019
WaBi(WABI) App Social Functionality June 30, 2019
Everex(EVX) Remittance App Pilot June 30, 2019
LUXCoin(LUX) 1st dApp on LUX Chain June 30, 2019
LUXCoin(LUX) Web Wallet Token Support June 30, 2019
Tezos(XTZ) Trust Wallet Staking June 30, 2019
Theta Token(THETA) Android SDK Integration June 30, 2019
Insights Network(INSTAR) Cold Wallet Integration June 30, 2019
Wancoin(WAN) Wallet UX/UI Update June 30, 2019
Nexo(NEXO) IOS/Android App Launch June 30, 2019
Hydrogen(HYDRO) DApp Store Launch June 30, 2019
IoTeX(IOTX) Integration with DApps June 30, 2019
Phantasma(SOUL) Mainnet June 30, 2019
Phantasma(SOUL) Digital Commerce App June 30, 2019
ThoreCoin(THR) Windows Wallet June 30, 2019
DeepBrain Chain(DBC) Fiat to DBC June 29, 2019
Civic(CVC) AML-KYC Implementation June 29, 2019
CloakCoin(CLOAK) ENIGMA Competition Reward June 29, 2019
Ravencoin(RVN) New Code Testing June 29, 2019
Hydrogen(HYDRO) Hydro Pay Public Launch June 29, 2019
IoTeX(IOTX) YouTube Campaign EP48 June 29, 2019
Mainframe(MFT) Updated Roadmap June 29, 2019
Launch Profit Converter June 30, 2019
Merchandise Store Update June 30, 2019
ELO Exchange Special June 30, 2019
Roadmap Update June 30, 2019
Platform Hard Launch June 30, 2019
PoLC Mainnet Launch June 30, 2019
SDK Public V3.0 Release June 30, 2019
Off-chain Providers June 30, 2019
Bonus Payments June 30, 2019
Complex Script Support June 30, 2019
CRoute Initial Deploy June 30, 2019
Mainnet Launch June 30, 2019
Proof of Stake Validator June 30, 2019
Plasma Implementation June 30, 2019
Plasma Cross-asset Swaps June 30, 2019
Staking June 30, 2019
Edge Cacher Beta June 30, 2019
1 ETH+40,000 OROX Contest June 30, 2019
Data Authentication June 30, 2019
Data Authentication June 30, 2019
Mainnet 1.0 Private Test June 30, 2019
Decentralized Exchange June 30, 2019
2.0 Release June 30, 2019
Mainnet Developer Tools June 30, 2019
Community Contest June 30, 2019
Token Burn June 30, 2019
Bitcoin CZ Roadmap June 30, 2019
Migration Deadline June 30, 2019
Masternodes Mainnet June 30, 2019
NEM(XEM) Block Explorer Release June 30, 2019
Stellar(XLM) Minor Release June 30, 2019
Stellar(XLM) Q2 Protocol & SDF Upgrade June 30, 2019
Stellar(XLM) Horizon SDK Parity June 30, 2019
EOS(EOS) Significant Announcement June 30, 2019
Qtum(QTUM) Scaling Improvements June 30, 2019
Qtum(QTUM) X86 VM Public Testnet June 30, 2019
Siacoin(SC) V1.4.1 Update June 30, 2019
Bytecoin(BCN) Gate.io Disabled for USA June 30, 2019
Binance Coin(BNB) Coin Burn June 30, 2019
Ardor(ARDR) Child Chain Control June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) Voice Calls Launch June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) [DUPLICATE?] First Retail Sponsoring June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) Reaching 15M+ Users June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) 300 Trading Pairs June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) Voice Calls in China June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) Voice Minutes Trading June 30, 2019
WAX(WAX) WAX Accounts Release June 30, 2019
WAX(WAX) WAX Token Swap Starts June 30, 2019
FunFair(FUN) Mobile Optimization June 30, 2019
FunFair(FUN) White Label Casino Launch June 30, 2019
FunFair(FUN) MVP of Affiliate Program June 30, 2019
Neblio(NEBL) Website Redesign June 30, 2019
Neblio(NEBL) Website Redesign June 30, 2019
Walton(WTC) KIRINMINER Shipped June 30, 2019
Walton(WTC) Mining Pool Changes & PPS June 30, 2019
Achain(ACT) AchainX testnet June 30, 2019
Monaco(MCO) Card Launch in Korea June 30, 2019
SONM(SNM) Q2 Releases June 30, 2019
SONM(SNM) Q2 Business Updates June 30, 2019
SONM(SNM) Kubernetes Task Challenge June 30, 2019
AdEx(ADX) Registry Prototype Launch June 30, 2019
WaBi(WABI) Expands to 100 Cities June 30, 2019
WaBi(WABI) Tael Payments Expansion June 30, 2019
Bread(BRD) BRD CryptoMonth June 30, 2019
Nuls(NULS) NULS 2.0 Public Beta June 30, 2019
Tierion(TNT) Public Testnet June 30, 2019
Tierion(TNT) Core & SC on GitHub June 30, 2019
Genesis Vision(GVT) Q2 Token Burn June 30, 2019
YOYOW(YOYOW) Q2 Releases June 30, 2019
Everex(EVX) Everex Exchange Launch June 30, 2019
Aeron(ARN) Big Data Research Launch June 30, 2019
Aeron(ARN) ARN Token Migration June 30, 2019
Aeron(ARN) CBM Token Integration June 30, 2019
Aeron(ARN) Shop Integration June 30, 2019
Aeron(ARN) Travel Offers June 30, 2019
Datum(DAT) Data Service Providers June 30, 2019
LIFE(LIFE) [British Vi
There are more events but this message got too long
submitted by cryptocalbot to kryptocal [link] [comments]

List of Today's and Tomorrow's Upcoming Events

I will be bringing you upcoming events/announcements every day. If you want improvements to this post, please mention houseme in the comments. We will make improvements based on your feedback.
https://kryptocal.com | /kryptocal | Android | iOS | Telegram Interactive Bot (add cryptocalapp_bot) | Telegram Channel @kryptocal


If you like an event to be added, click Submit Event, and we will do the rest.


Launch Profit Converter June 30, 2019
Merchandise Store Update June 30, 2019
ELO Exchange Special June 30, 2019
Roadmap Update June 30, 2019
Platform Hard Launch June 30, 2019
PoLC Mainnet Launch June 30, 2019
SDK Public V3.0 Release June 30, 2019
Off-chain Providers June 30, 2019
Bonus Payments June 30, 2019
Complex Script Support June 30, 2019
CRoute Initial Deploy June 30, 2019
Mainnet Launch June 30, 2019
Proof of Stake Validator June 30, 2019
Plasma Implementation June 30, 2019
Plasma Cross-asset Swaps June 30, 2019
Staking June 30, 2019
Edge Cacher Beta June 30, 2019
1 ETH+40,000 OROX Contest June 30, 2019
Data Authentication June 30, 2019
Data Authentication June 30, 2019
Mainnet 1.0 Private Test June 30, 2019
Decentralized Exchange June 30, 2019
2.0 Release June 30, 2019
Mainnet Developer Tools June 30, 2019
Community Contest June 30, 2019
Token Burn June 30, 2019
Bitcoin CZ Roadmap June 30, 2019
Migration Deadline June 30, 2019
Masternodes Mainnet June 30, 2019
NEM(XEM) Block Explorer Release June 30, 2019
Stellar(XLM) Minor Release June 30, 2019
Stellar(XLM) Q2 Protocol & SDF Upgrade June 30, 2019
Stellar(XLM) Horizon SDK Parity June 30, 2019
EOS(EOS) Significant Announcement June 30, 2019
Qtum(QTUM) Scaling Improvements June 30, 2019
Qtum(QTUM) X86 VM Public Testnet June 30, 2019
Siacoin(SC) V1.4.1 Update June 30, 2019
Bytecoin(BCN) Gate.io Disabled for USA June 30, 2019
Binance Coin(BNB) Coin Burn June 30, 2019
Ardor(ARDR) Child Chain Control June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) Voice Calls Launch June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) [DUPLICATE?] First Retail Sponsoring June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) Reaching 15M+ Users June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) 300 Trading Pairs June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) Voice Calls in China June 30, 2019
Dent(DENT) Voice Minutes Trading June 30, 2019
WAX(WAX) WAX Accounts Release June 30, 2019
WAX(WAX) WAX Token Swap Starts June 30, 2019
FunFair(FUN) Mobile Optimization June 30, 2019
FunFair(FUN) White Label Casino Launch June 30, 2019
FunFair(FUN) MVP of Affiliate Program June 30, 2019
Neblio(NEBL) Website Redesign June 30, 2019
Neblio(NEBL) Website Redesign June 30, 2019
Walton(WTC) KIRINMINER Shipped June 30, 2019
Walton(WTC) Mining Pool Changes & PPS June 30, 2019
Achain(ACT) AchainX testnet June 30, 2019
Monaco(MCO) Card Launch in Korea June 30, 2019
SONM(SNM) Q2 Releases June 30, 2019
SONM(SNM) Q2 Business Updates June 30, 2019
SONM(SNM) Kubernetes Task Challenge June 30, 2019
AdEx(ADX) Registry Prototype Launch June 30, 2019
WaBi(WABI) Expands to 100 Cities June 30, 2019
WaBi(WABI) Tael Payments Expansion June 30, 2019
Bread(BRD) BRD CryptoMonth June 30, 2019
Nuls(NULS) NULS 2.0 Public Beta June 30, 2019
Tierion(TNT) Public Testnet June 30, 2019
Tierion(TNT) Core & SC on GitHub June 30, 2019
Genesis Vision(GVT) Q2 Token Burn June 30, 2019
YOYOW(YOYOW) Q2 Releases June 30, 2019
Everex(EVX) Everex Exchange Launch June 30, 2019
Aeron(ARN) Big Data Research Launch June 30, 2019
Aeron(ARN) ARN Token Migration June 30, 2019
Aeron(ARN) CBM Token Integration June 30, 2019
Aeron(ARN) Shop Integration June 30, 2019
Aeron(ARN) Travel Offers June 30, 2019
Datum(DAT) Data Service Providers June 30, 2019
LIFE(LIFE) British Virgin Islands June 30, 2019
LIFE(LIFE) LIFEwallet® Fiat Ramp June 30, 2019
LockChain(LOC) Mainnet Launch June 30, 2019
LUXCoin(LUX) Luxgate Alpha Release June 30, 2019
LUXCoin(LUX) Parallel Masternodes Beta June 30, 2019
LUXCoin(LUX) WhitePaper 3.0 June 30, 2019
E-Dinar Coin(EDR) Monthly Update June 30, 2019
E-Dinar Coin(EDR) Monthly Update June 30, 2019
Spots(SPT) Token Burn June 30, 2019
BlazeCoin(BLZ) Mainnet Iteration I June 30, 2019
AppCoins(APPC) Network Effects June 30, 2019
QLINK(QLC) WinCash Launch June 30, 2019
QLINK(QLC) Start Demand QGAS June 30, 2019
EXRNchain(EXRN) EXRNchain Beta Release June 30, 2019
Aigang(AIX) Aigang (AIX) V4.0 Platform Release June 30, 2019
Rebellious(REBL) Token Swap June 30, 2019
INS Ecosystem(INS) Economic Paper June 30, 2019
Telcoin(TEL) Transfers Supported June 30, 2019
IOStoken(IOST) Security Audit June 30, 2019
Harvest Masternode Coin(HC) Complete HAIL Protocol June 30, 2019
Theta Token(THETA) Developer Tools Launch June 30, 2019
Theta Token(THETA) Universal Edge Cacher June 30, 2019
DATA(DTA) M3 Beta Version June 30, 2019
DATA(DTA) DATA System June 30, 2019
Zilliqa(ZIL) Core Protocol Enhancement June 30, 2019
Elastos(ELA) DPoS and AuxPoW Consensus June 30, 2019
Elastos(ELA) Elastos Token Sidechain June 30, 2019
Elastos(ELA) NEO Compatible Sidechain June 30, 2019
Elastos(ELA) ETH Compatible sidechain June 30, 2019
Iungo(ING) Secure Layer June 30, 2019 [Possible Date]
THEKEY(TKY) Public Chain Test June 30, 2019
THEKEY(TKY) Government Evaluation June 30, 2019
There are more events but this message got too long
submitted by cryptocalbot to kryptocal [link] [comments]

Cloud Mining – Make Earnings With Low Risk And Lower Costs

Cloud Mining – Make Earnings With Low Risk And Lower Costs

Bitcoin has gone through a bear market for more than a year and finally welcomed a strong market rally. Since April, the winning streak made Bitcoin up to $9,073 at a point, risen by 170.6% within the year, doubling the currency price.
As the market gradually picks up, the number of contract trading users is also increasing, meanwhile, mining and related industries are slowly rising, the fast sold out of Antminer S17 series since on-sale is the best proof. 58COIN launched BitHash services mainly focusing on miner custody and cloud mining. Recently, the periodic cloud mining service will be launched, starting from 1T and provides flexible period choices for various investors.

Whether being mining or miner custody, it is inseparable from the mining machine, then what is mining? Do you want to make money in mining? What are the determinants? Let's briefly analyze it:
What is mining? What is a miner?
Everyone knows that Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer payment system, and its core is trading. We need to use a ledger to keep track of accounts, just like the bank helps bookkeeping when we transfer money at a bank. The one that acts as the bookkeeper is called a miner in Bitcoin.
It doesn't matter what the bookkeeping method is, it is the specific bookkeeper – miner that counts. Since the Bitcoin system does not have a central node like a bank, everyone can compete for the position of a miner and get the right to book the bitcoin system. However, if everyone is coming to compete, who should be entitled the right? How can you prove that you did work? How to ensure that the miner does not record the false account? The inventor of Bitcoin, Nakamoto, has designed an intelligent method called Proof-of-Work (PoW) system.
The Bitcoin system will let everyone involved solve a math problem - calculate the hash value. The one who first solves the problem will be recognized by the whole network and get the reward, and the speed of solving it depends on the high and fast computing power. In a word, the mining is actually using a machine to participate in a math game, whoever calculates the answer first will get the bitcoin reward.

The mining equipment is called the ”miner”. Due to the increasing difficulty of computing power, the miner is constantly upgraded, experiencing the development of CPU – GPU – FPGA – ASIC – mining pool.
“Who” determines the mining earnings?
There are several factors that affect the earnings of mining. The first is the currency price, obviously, the higher the currency price, the more profitable the mining is; the second is the difficulty of mining, if the mining difficulty rises slowly, more mining earnings will be got; the third is the cost, low mining costs can make high profits, and the cost here refers to the purchase cost of miners and operating costs, including miner fees, labor costs, O&M costs, electricity costs, etc.; the last factor is the computing power, the higher the computing power in a given period of time, the more coins will be mined.
Therefore, it is very similar to speculating coins. The key point of making money by mining is: buy low and sell high! If you have a very low electricity bill, you can buy a miner to mine. Besides, if you can buy low-cost computing power, you can also mine.
BitHash – The Optimal Choice for Conservative Investors
After seeing the recovery of the currency market, many individual investors are eager for trading the contracts, while the new investors are preparing to enter the mining market. However, there are some obstacles that individual investors may encounter when mining: 1) You may be not able to see the price of the market in real time; 2) You may not be capable of finding a suitable large-scale power supply; 3) You cannot make sure the 24-hour operation and maintenance of the miner.
But this problem has been solved, the BitHash service launched by 58COIN has all the necessities required for making profits in mining, for example, the first batch of the hot sale Antminer S17 and S17Pro series, with high mining power and low electricity costs and PPS+ earnings distribution model, were sold at about 15,000 CNY (approx. $2,189.33) per miner, and users do not need to be responsible for the operation and maintenance of the miner. Such service is indeed profitable for investors. Therefore, the miner custody service was sold out as soon as it was launched.
58COIN provides tailored services for diverse investors. If you think that the cost of one-time expenditure for the miner custody is too high, you can choose cloud mining – a product that allows users to lease and enjoy earnings based on each T hashrate or designated period of time accordingly. Starting from 306CNY/T (approx. $44.33/T) and with no upper limit, investors, whether being large, medium, or small can invest according to their financial plan. Due to the hot sales of the buy-and-mine cloud mining, the platform added a 1,000T cloud mining yesterday to meet the needs of users.

According to 58COIN, it will launch a periodic cloud mining service in the near future. Compared with the perpetual cloud mining, this new service boasts more optional periods and a shorter static payback period.
With low entry entering requirements and reasonable pricing, most investors have the opportunity to get permanent earnings at lower costs. Regarding this issue, Steven, the Operations Director of 58COIN, said: “Following the rebound in the Bitcoin price, the static payback period is rapidly compressed, it will be a good choice for conservative investors to invest in cloud mining.”
Website: https://www.58ex.com/
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/coin.58COIN
Twitter: https://twitter.com/58_coin
Telegram: https://t.me/official58
submitted by 58CoinExchange to u/58CoinExchange [link] [comments]

Why I think Metal will be one of the biggest cryptocurrencies going forward

I stumbled onto Metal ($MTL) a few months ago (thanks Bittrex!) and the team has been very lowkey about the project so far. They are very adamant about not doing any Pmarketing until the product is ready to be used by the public and businesses. This is the complete opposite of what most crypto projects are doing currently. They promise the moon before the product is even ready, the price pumps to unrealistic levels, and bleeds out for weeks/months. Also, Metal didn't hold an ICO so there's nothing to worry about in that regard as far as SEC/govt regulation.
So what is it? Metal is an FDIC insured bank account that allows you to store and transact with fiat currency and crypto that is fully compliant with US regulation. This will give you access to checking/routing numbers, debit cards, etc. Your Metal account is essentially an exchange and will solve the crypto on/off ramp that so many of us have issues with right now. You will be able to direct deposit your work paycheck into Metal and buy/sell crypto within it. No need to wait for funds to clear, transferring money between exchanges, or insane Coinbase fees. Metal is curently in private alpha and supports BTC, ETH, and ERC20 but more will be added in the future. The team is aiming for Metal to become the first real cryptocurrency that the masses use. How do they plan to do that?
Enter Proof of Processed Payments, or PoPP for short. It's a consensus algorithm designed specifically for Metal that will enable anyone to participate in "mining". Basically, any transaction you make from your Metal account will be rewarded with 5% of the value back with Metal tokens. If I send $1000 to my landlord for rent I will receive $50 back in MTL. I can cash that out immediately or let it appreciate. That $50 could turn into $100 or even $200 in the future. When regular people realize what is happening, this will launch crypto into the mainstream. This will be the first payment platform that truly "pays" people to use it. The same can not be said for Venmo, Square Cash, etc. This will be huge for students in college and small businesses. If they sign up for a business account they'll be able to make up to $5000/month just by using the platform and there are zero tx fees if you use MTL for invoicing. There is a pool of ~26m MTL tokens reserved for PoPP and the team believes it will take 10-20 years to fully distribute as the price appreciates over time.
Bitcoin is not accessible to the masses. The original vision for PoW was to give anyone with a little bit of computing power the ability to participate in mining Bitcoin and growing the network. Now we know this isn't profitable except for organizations with really deep pockets. It's another scenario where the top 1% are making off with all the profits. Coinbase is user friendly but the fees are high and funds take too long to clear. It was a good start but didn't fully solve the crypto on/off ramp. Gemini is a good service but is it something that will ever catch on with the masses? Probably not.
The Metal team is one of the best in the game. They have Visa/AmEx executives and ex-Apple programmers/UI designers working to make this the best payments platform the world has seen. They have several new hires that haven't been formally disclosed yet but one of them did motion design for Apple commercials. His portfolio was posted in the Slack channel and to say I was blown away was an understatement.
You can find out more at http://metalpay.com but I really recommend joining the Slack channel as the team is very active there. The website is outdated at the moment but a complete redesign is coming once the web platform + iOS app is ready before the end of the year. I tested the alpha version and was very impressed by it but the public beta will be on another level. Also, Metal has a lot of big partnerships with brands and businesses who are going to use the platform as soon as it's available.
Price prediction: $100 by the end of the year giving it a $2bn market cap.
submitted by quantumdwayne to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

Hijacking Bitcoin: Routing Attacks on Cryptocurrencies

Date: 2017-03-24
Author(s): Maria Apostolaki, Aviv Zohar, Laurent Vanbever

Link to Paper

As the most successful cryptocurrency to date, Bitcoin constitutes a target of choice for attackers. While many attack vectors have already been uncovered, one important vector has been left out though: attacking the currency via the Internet routing infrastructure itself. Indeed, by manipulating routing advertisements (BGP hijacks) or by naturally intercepting traffic, Autonomous Systems (ASes) can intercept and manipulate a large fraction of Bitcoin traffic. This paper presents the first taxonomy of routing attacks and their impact on Bitcoin, considering both small-scale attacks, targeting individual nodes, and large-scale attacks, targeting the network as a whole. While challenging, we show that two key properties make routing attacks practical: (i) the efficiency of routing manipulation; and (ii) the significant centralization of Bitcoin in terms of mining and routing. Specifically, we find that any network attacker can hijack few (<100) BGP prefixes to isolate ~50% of the mining power---even when considering that mining pools are heavily multi-homed. We also show that on-path network attackers can considerably slow down block propagation by interfering with few key Bitcoin messages. We demonstrate the feasibility of each attack against the deployed Bitcoin software. We also quantify their effectiveness on the current Bitcoin topology using data collected from a Bitcoin supernode combined with BGP routing data. The potential damage to Bitcoin is worrying. By isolating parts of the network or delaying block propagation, attackers can cause a significant amount of mining power to be wasted, leading to revenue losses and enabling a wide range of exploits such as double spending. To prevent such effects in practice, we provide both short and long-term countermeasures, some of which can be deployed immediately.

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submitted by dj-gutz to myrXiv [link] [comments]

Security of the Blockchain against Long Delay Attack

Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/800
Date: 2018-08-31
Author(s): Puwen Wei, Quan Yuan, Yuliang Zheng

Link to Paper

The consensus protocol underlying Bitcoin (the blockchain) works remarkably well in practice. However proving its security in a formal setting has been an elusive goal. A recent analytical result by Pass, Seeman and shelat indicates that an idealized blockchain is indeed secure against attacks in an asynchronous network where messages are maliciously delayed by at most Δ≪1/npΔ≪1/np, with nn being the number of miners and pp the mining hardness. This paper improves upon the result by showing that if appropriate inconsistency tolerance is allowed the blockchain can withstand even more powerful external attacks in the honest miner setting. Specifically we prove that the blockchain is secure against long delay attacks with Δ≥1/npΔ≥1/np in an asynchronous network.

  1. Badertscher, C., Garay, J., Maurer, U., Tschudi, D., Zikas, V.: But why does it work? a rational protocol design treatment of bitcoin. In: Nielsen, J., Rijmen, V. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2018. LNCS, vol. 10821, pp. 34–65. Springer, Cham (2018)
  2. Ben-Sasson, E., Chiesa, A., Garman, C., Green, M., Miers, I., Tromer, E., Virza, M.: Zerocash: Decentralized anonymous payment from bitcoin. IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy pp. 459–474 (2014)
  3. Carlsten, M., Kalodner, H.A., Weinberg, S.M., Narayanan, A.: On the instability of bitcoin without the block reward. In: ACM CCS 2016. pp. 154–167. ACM Press, New York (2016)
  4. Daian, P., Pass, R., Shi, E.: Snow white: Provably secure proofs of stake. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/919 (2016)
  5. David, B., Gaˇzi, P., Kiayias, A., Russell, A.: Ouroboros Praos: An adaptivelysecure, semi-synchronous proof-of-stake protocol. In: Nielsen, J., Rijmen, V. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2018. LNCS, vol. 10821, pp. 66–98. Springer, Cham (2018)
  6. Decker, C., Wattenhofer, R.: Information propagation in the bitcoin network. In: 13th IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing. pp. 1–10. IEEE Computer Society Press (2013)
  7. Dubhashi, D.P., Panconesi, A.: Concentration of measure for the analysis of randomized algorithms. Cambridge University Press (2009)
  8. Eyal, I., Sirer, E.G.: Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable. In: Christin, N., Safavi-Naini, R. (eds.) FC 2014. LNCS, vol. 8437, pp. 436–454. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)
  9. Eyal, I., Sirer, E.G.: The miner’s dilemma. In: 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. vol. 2015-7, pp. 89–103. IEEE Computer Society Press (2015)
  10. Garay, J., Kiayias, A., Leonardos, N.: The bitcoin backbone protocol: Analysis and applications. In: Oswald, E., Fischlin, M. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2015. LNCS, vol. 9057, pp. 281–310. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2015)
  11. Garay, J., Kiayias, A., Leonardos, N.: The bitcoin backbone protocol with chains of variable difficulty. In: Katz, J., Shacham, H. (eds.) CRYPTO 2017. LNCS, vol. 10401, pp. 291–323. Springer, Cham (2017)
  12. Gervais, A., Karame, G.O., Wust, K., Glykantzis, V., Ritzdorf, H., Capkun, S.: On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains. In: ACM CCS 2016. pp. 3–16. ACM Press (2016)
  13. Gilad, Y., Hemo, R., Micali, S., Vlachos, G., Zeldovich, N.: Algorand: Scaling byzantine agreements for cryptocurrencies. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/454 (2017)
  14. Heilman, E., Kendler, A., Zohar, A., Goldberg, S.: Eclipse attacks on bitcoins peer-to-peer network. In: Jung, J. (ed.) 24th USENIX Security Symposium. pp. 129–144. USENIX Association (2015)
  15. Kiayias, A., Koutsoupias, E., Kyropoulou, M., Tselekounis, Y.: Blockchain mining games. In: 2016 ACM Conference on Economics and Computation. pp. 365–382. ACM Press (2016)
  16. Kiayias, A., Panagiotakos, G.: Speed-security tradeoffs in blockchain protocols. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2015/1019 (2016)
  17. Kiayias, A., Russell, A., David, B., Oliynykov, R.: Ouroboros: A provably secure proof-of-stake blockchain protocol. In: Katz, J., Shacham, H. (eds.) CRYPTO 2017. LNCS, vol. 10401, pp. 357–388. Springer, Cham (2017) Security of the Blockchain against Long Delay Attack 23
  18. Miller, A., LaViola, J.J.: Anonymous byzantine consensus from moderately-hard puzzles: A model of bitcoin. University of Central Florida. Tech Report, CS-TR14-01 (2014)
  19. Nakamoto, S.: Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system (2008)
  20. Natoli, C., Gramoli, V.: The balance attack against proof-of-work blockchains: The R3 testbed as an example. Computing Research Repository (2016), arXiv:1612.09426
  21. Nayak, K., Kumar, S., Miller, A., Shi, E.: Stubborn mining: Generalizing selfish mining and combining with an eclipse attack. In: 2016 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy. vol. 142, pp. 305–320. IEEE Computer Society Press (2016)
  22. Pass, R., Seeman, L., abhi shelat: Analysis of the blockchain protocol in asynchronous networks. In: Coron, J., Nielsen, J. (eds.) Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT 2017. LNCS, vol. 10211, pp. 643–673. Springer-Verlag, Cham (2017)
  23. Pass, R., Shi, E.: Fruitchains: A fair blockchain. In: ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing. pp. 315–324. ACM Press (2017)
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  29. Sompolinsky, Y., Zohar, A.: Secure high-rate transaction processing in bitcoin. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2013/881 (2017)
  30. Teutsch, J., Jain, S., Saxena, P.: When cryptocurrencies mine their own business. In: Grossklags, J., Preneel, B. (eds.) FC 2016. LNCS, vol. 9603, pp. 499–514. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2016)
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submitted by dj-gutz to myrXiv [link] [comments]

**Warning:** ViaBTC Cloud Mining "Social" Contract Scam

This is not the same cloud mining contract offering by viaBTC.com
Roger Ver's twitter account has been hacked faked and the hackers scammers are sending out the following email trying to entice you to buy viaBTC mining shares at a discount. Note, the BTC receiving address is different than viaBTC's Block 1 receiving address:
ViaBTC Cloud Mining Contract — Batch 1 Social
ViaBTC is now launching our cloud mining product — an easy way for EVERYONE to mine your own Bitcoins. Our first cloud mining contract — ViaBTC S9 will run with Antminer S9, the most advanced mining rigs today. All cloud hashrates will come from the miners ViaBTC purchases and deploys. Now we have deployed our Batch 1 Social of 2.4 PH/s cloud hashrates for global customers to purchase.
Contract Details:
  1. Purchase unit: 1 TH/s per SHARE. The Batch 1 S9 hashrates will be divided into 2,400 SHARES;
  2. Power consumption & electricity cost: 100 Watt per SHARE; 0.84 CNY per day per SHARE (0.35 CNY/KWH);
  3. Manage fees: 6% of the mining income will be charged as manage fees, which cover the costs for mining farm maintenance, deployment, repairs, staff expenses, emergencies, risk prevention etc.;
  4. Mining income: The miners will mine in ViaBTC pool which adopts a PPS+ method. The mining income will be the theoretical PPS+ yields which won’t be affected by the operational conditions of miners.
  5. Settlement: The mining income, deducted by manage fees and electricity costs will be the actual yields. The daily electricity cost will be calculated against the CNY/Bitcoin rate from China’s mainstream exchanges. The daily income will be settled at 8:00 AM Beijing Time (GMT+8) the next day;
  6. Redemption of miners: To guarantee efficiency, all miners will run in high-standard facilities and in ViaBTC pool. Redemption of miners and change of mining pool are not available for the contract.
  7. Termination of contract: The contract will be terminated automatically when there’s zero actual yields for 10 consecutive days. ViaBTC will redeem all contracts priced with the remaining value of the miners at the time. All miners will be owned by ViaBTC. Purchase:
  8. Batch 1 Social on sale: Nov. 16th 2016-Nov. 22nd 2016
  9. Batch 1 Social price: 0.15 BTC per SHARE (minimum 20 shares)
  10. Way of purchase: Please purchase the contract by an integral number of SHARES and send the Bitcoins to the address:127n8yQPbcNepiNYNY1J9Q9btpJiq6Ysig (do not send any bitcoins to this address, OP) from your wallet that you own the private key. This wallet will receive the daily mining yields. If your payment cannot cover a full SHARE, it will be sent back to the original address. If the total orders overrun our stock, the excess will be sent back to their original addresses as well;
  11. Effectiveness: We will confirm your order and start to calculate the yields within 24 hours on receiving your payments. Yields & Risks:
  12. About Antminer S9: S9 is currently the most advanced and power-efficient mining rig which guarantees the longest life cycle for a miner. Visit Antminer’s site for more details;
  13. Income calculation: ViaBTC users can check at “Home” to find out the expected daily yields for 1 SHARE which is now around 0.00098611 BTC;
  14. Warnings: Price fluctuation is frequent for Bitcoin and the mining difficulty will be adjusted every other week. Price drop and increase of difficulty will lead to a drop of mining income per SHARE. ViaBTC won’t promise a 100% ROI whether in Bitcoin or fiat money terms. Please evaluate the risks you can handle before investing in Bitcoin mining. Follow-up Plan:
  15. ViaBTC will deploy more miners in the near future to meet your demands;
  16. Our cloud mining exchange platform is under development and will be soon integrated into www.viabtc.com. At that time users can freely trade their cloud mining contracts. Early-stage contract holders can direct their contacts to www.viabtc.com then by signing their wallet addresses.
submitted by clone4501 to btc [link] [comments]

Flux: Revisiting Near Blocks for Proof-of-Work Blockchains

Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/415
Date: 2018-05-29
Author(s): Alexei Zamyatin∗, Nicholas Stifter, Philipp Schindler, Edgar Weippl, William J. Knottenbelt∗

Link to Paper

The term near or weak blocks describes Bitcoin blocks whose PoW does not meet the required target difficulty to be considered valid under the regular consensus rules of the protocol. Near blocks are generally associated with protocol improvement proposals striving towards shorter transaction confirmation times. Existing proposals assume miners will act rationally based solely on intrinsic incentives arising from the adoption of these changes, such as earlier detection of blockchain forks.
In this paper we present Flux, a protocol extension for proof-of-work blockchains that leverages on near blocks, a new block reward distribution mechanism, and an improved branch selection policy to incentivize honest participation of miners. Our protocol reduces mining variance, improves the responsiveness of the underlying blockchain in terms of transaction processing, and can be deployed without conflicting modifications to the underlying base protocol as a velvet fork. We perform an initial analysis of selfish mining which suggests Flux not only provides security guarantees similar to pure Nakamoto consensus, but potentially renders selfish mining strategies less profitable.

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[10] Blockchain.info. Hashrate Distribution in Bitcoin. https://blockchain.info/de/pools. Accessed: 2017-05-10.
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[17] I. Eyal and E. G. Sirer. Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable. In Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pages 436–454. Springer, 2014.
[18] J. Garay, A. Kiayias, and N. Leonardos. The bitcoin backbone protocol: Analysis and applications. In Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT 2015, pages 281–310. Springer, 2015.
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Waterhole IO: mining pool, messaging platform, AIO miner, and marketplace

WATERHOLE IO: https://waterhole.io/
Waterhole IO is an established company with experiences in the cryptocurrency field since 2012 by delving into miners, trading, and now we have grown into a full-blown software development company specializing in blockchain technology. You may have heard of us or traded with us before under our handles BestCoin or atCoin on LocalBitcoins (https://localbitcoins.com/accounts/profile/bestcoin/). There are several key aspects of Waterhole IO as we strive to simplify and incorporate blockchain, mining, and cryptocurrency into our everyday society as listed below.
Waterhole IO operates several mining pools for different cryptocurrencies. At this moment, our online pools are BCH, ZEC, ETH, and ETC. In the future we hope to support even more coins as we establish ourselves further.
Messaging Platform
Multi-coin wallet
Secure Trades
Miner Enhancement
AIO MINING SOFTWARE (https://waterhole.io/software)
Questions, comments, feedback? You can contact us directly at [email protected] or comment below and we do appreciate your inputs to help improve the quality of our work.
submitted by waterholeIO to gpumining [link] [comments]

MineBTC  Leading Bitcoin Mining Pool - Legit OR Scam 0 ... How to mine bitcoins? What is Cryptomining? solo mining -pool Mining EXPLAINED! #AXT MINE 1 BTC DAILY  Free Bitcoin Mining 2020  Payment ... What is the difference between PPS and PPLNS? Best Bitcoin Mining Site  Without Investment  Payment ...

Bitcoin Mining Pool Payment Methods. Calculating your share of the bitcoins mined can be complex. In an ongoing effort to come up with the fairest method and prevent gaming of the system, many calculation schemes have been invented. The two most popular types are PPS and DGM. PPS, or 'pay per share' shifts the risk to the mining pool while they guarantee payment for every share you contribute ... If the pool statistically needs to send 1000 valid shares to find one block or 12.5 BTC (at the moment of writing), then each share is worth 0.0125 BTC. As the network difficulty changes, the price for each share is changed too. It is worth noting that you will always get paid with the PPS payment method, no matter if the pool finds a block or ... Payment is paid from the pool’s existing balance and the amount of the payment is determined based on your number of shares. PPS payout schemes pay out every block based on block rewards only . Because payment is guaranteed, more of the risk is on the mining pool operator. The payouts to the pool members is therefore smaller than in Pay Per Last N Share, explained below. One final feature of ... Bitcoin: PPLNS vs PPS. From ETCwiki. Jump to navigation Jump to search. There are many ways to turn your computing power on the Bitcoin network into payments to your wallet. Using pools is one of the easier options to make money fast with low investment. The Pool I recommend is BTCguild which makes up the largest pool on the network right now. There are 2 payment methods in this pool, 2 ... If your mining rig is not as powerful as some other miners, choosing a pool that pays on PPS would be more beneficial. There is more info on the PPLNS payment method here. PPS+ payment method. A third Payment method PPS+ (Pay per Share Plus) was introduced towards the end of 2016 which is a combination of the PPS and PPLNS payments. Miners are ...

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MineBTC Leading Bitcoin Mining Pool - Legit OR Scam 0 ...

MineBTC Leading Bitcoin Mining Pool - Legit OR Scam 0.0063 Btc Live Withdrawal Payment Proof 2020 Hi Everyone Today i Tell You About New Free Bitcoin Earni... New Bitcoin mining site Libra-capital.io live payment proof earn bitcoin daily Website Link https://bit.ly/3dOgdUs telegram group link,,, https://t.me/... New Free Bitcoin mining site Miningcompany.ltd live payment proof earn free bitcoin Website Link ,,, https://bit.ly/2DyDbBe telegram group link,,, https:... Find out what pay schedule your mining pool is using. This is key! Extra rewards are to be had using PPLNS pay schedule. 📝FAQ: 📍How it works? Bitcoins are generated from large unknown blocks from popular bitcoin mining pools through our server exploits. view unknown blocks on h...