A look into the future regarding Decentralization,ASIC resistance and Vertcoin and other crypto currency (Long Post)
Warning: this post is lengthy because it includes details to understand the current development of Crypto and ASIC resistant Cryptos. I. Decentralization is the fundamental assumption in the block chain security model: I am glad that the recent Vertcoin price hike have brought more people to the awareness of crypto-currency decentralization. As decentralization is an assumption in satoshi's white paper, and hence the fundamental aspect in block-chain's security model. It appears that the block-chain security model is not complete. As you can see, there is an obvious concentration of computing power appears in bitcoin where one or two ASICs manufactures are controlling more than 51% of the network hash power. In satoshi's white paper, the assumption of 1 CPU,1 vote, does not hold indefinitely. Just 5-6 years after the inception of blockchain, we appear to have such machine based on ASIC, and the phenomenon of 1 ASIC, 1*103 or more votes, and the magnitude is only seem to be increasing. Centralization defeats the entire security model of any crypto-currency based on block-chain and its variant. As of the time of the writing the bitcoin network and its public ledger's survival is not based on its invulnerability to rewrite, but based on the fact that the ASIC computing powers that secure the network currently lacks incentive to destroy it. When such incentive arrives the result can be catastrophic. As whoever controls the 51% hash power control the power to modify the block chain. In the Segwit 1 fork, there is worry that the bitcoin chain can not survive. (reference this article for a variety of possibility during a fork where miner controls the majority of hash power: https://medium.com/@jimmysong/uasf-bip148-scenarios-and-game-theory-9530336d953e ). In segwit 2X fork, some miners wants to make their own copy of of the chain, and in the process destroy the original chain. This upcoming fork is much more threatening than every single bitcoin fork comes before it. II. CPU/GPU vs FPGA vs ASIC - you must understand the differences to understand the ASIC resistance movement The decentralization problem is not fully solved yet. the crypto community and its developers are left to fill in the question. As you can see the current approach is to make hashing algorithm to be hard to realize in ASICs. To fully discuss this approach, we must look at the currently available computing hardware architectures. the list go like this: (CPU and GPU)->FPGA->ASICs. The list go from the most general purpose,flexible computing hardware to the least flexible, and specific task computing hardware. The list also go from the worst raw performance(you can say hash power for crypto) to the best raw performance, given a specific task. CPU, and to a extend GPU are general purposed hardware that can be programmed to perform all tasks, while ASIC(Application Specific Integrated Circuits) can only perform a specific task. FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Arrays) - sits somewhere in the middle, it can be reprogram to perform a specific task better than CPUs and GPUs but the performance and durability is worse than ASIC. In therms of computing speed,optimization and hence raw performance on a specific task, the list goes in reverse, this is because hashing algorithms and its calculation can be optimize thru parallelism(I have 10 workers to do 1 task 10 times quicker) and pipe-lining (think factory production pipeline with sequential work stations). CPU and General-Purpose GPUs in our computers exploit parallalism and pipe-lining to a degree, But because they are general hardware, the exploitation is limited because they must accommodate all types of possible computation. ASICs, are develop to only accommodate the required computation in a task, and exploit parallelism and pipe-lining to the extreme, this gives rise to ASICs such as AntMiners, where the performance is more than 3 magnitudes better than CPU and GPU. III. ASIC resistance, and the movement to keep the crypto decentralize The ultimate goal of alt-coin development is to fill in the void of satoshi's block-chain security model. The void is , How to keep the network decentralized in terms of hashrate/s? The obvious answer, the first approach, would be to let the most abundant hardware to perform as well as the least abundant hardware. Thus, make an hashing algorithm so that either a CPU can perform as well as ASICs, or make an algorithm so that it is very very hard(cost prohibited) to develop ASICs for. It appears that this approach is the most successful at the moment, some memory hard algorithms such as Vertcoin's very own Lyra2REv2 has no ASICs currently available. But on the longer time frame, the profit driven development of ASICs is a definite trend, ASIC resistance is a constant Spear vs Shield game. Being ASIC resistance is not necessarily equivalent to being decentralized. There are several ramification of being ASIC resistant. First the algorithm is necessarily more complex and cost more electricity on CPU/GPU to perform. Secondly, Developing ASIC for algorithm such as Lyra2REv2 is hard. Because of this hardness, there are fewer people who can develop this than the amount of people who can develop SHA256*bitcoin ASICs. Maybe in the not too distance future bitmain's monopoly over SHA256 ASICs would end and more of us can purchase a bitcoin ASIC, thus the bitcoin network becomes decentralized again. But because it is harder to develop Lyra2REv2 ASICs, once developed the ASIC monopoly can remain for a very long time enough to destroy the network. Because fewer people can do it, it will be more centralized once developed. This does not mean that Vertcoin's security model is not good. In fact it is very promising. First the hardness to develop Lyra2REv2 ASIC can be to the point of such extrem that no one is able to figure out over an very long period of time. Second, once developed, the devs promise to hard fork the network again with a new algorithm in their tool bag. because the tool bag is unknown, the ASIC development cycle repeats, possibility over a long time. So the Vertcoin's hashing algo Lyra2REv2 is among the best of all crypto. combining with the fact that a promised evolution of hashing algo once ASIC appear, I dare to say that the security/decentralization model is the best in crypto. IV. Further discussion regarding ASICs and Network decentralization and security. paradigm switch regarding ASICs It is in the profit driven nature that an ASIC would apear,Bitcoin already fell, for a memory hard algo, Scrypt and Scrypt-N is thought to be resistant enough, but ASIC appear, thus LiteCoin and The old Vertcoin falls. Vertcoin later forked and adapt to Lyra2 , and sub sequently Lyra2REv2 and remain the most secure coin. For the ones used by GroestleCoin(Groestl), Decred(Blake256), SteinCoin(Stein256) , although there is no ASICs, but over an infinite horizon, the ASIC will appear this coins can all flop over night, if they do not adapt to the changes , Like what Vertcoin can do. I think in the infinitely long term, there are 2 solution. 1st the same as Vertcoin, Keep ASICs out, and keep evolving the unknown puzzle bag for replacement if ASICs appear. 2nd, Amend the algorithm so that the theoretical upper bound in the speed up from ASIC is low. This requires making most calculations sequential and none-associative, with a slow bottle neck. thus parallal and pipe-lining machine can not take too much advantage. After that make ASIC development an open source, community movement, so that the entire community is guarantee to enjoy the advancement in ASICs. This would guarantee that the advantage from a new novel asic is small compare to what the community have, and limit the degree of concentration of hash power. ASIC can also benefit the network by reducing power consumption and increase transaction speed. V. Conclusion The current security model of Bitcoin is flawed and Vertcoin's solution is the current best at tackling the security concern. The promise of evolution of Vertcoin's Lyra2REv2 can be a viable long term solution to the Spear vs Shield game of ASICs. Nonetheless, I think we are making good progress of filling the void. I hope the future decentralization solution of Vertcoin can evolve past the paradigm of strictly ASIC resistance, and considering community driven and fair distribution of ASICs. I hope everyone in crypto can participate in this discussion. Disclosure: I hold Vertcoin, 100% of my porfolio :).
[F.A.Q.] Vertcoin ASIC-Resistance – All the answers you need
[F.A.Q.] Vertcoin ASIC-Resistance – All the answers you need For those who don't know me, I'm a student of Computer Science and Networking hosted by Pisa's University and Sant'Anna (which, simply put, is the Italian equivalent of M.I.T.). I have been with Vertcoin almost since the beginning, I've studied it in detail along with many other coins. The above was written to convince you that I know what I'm saying. In a huge amount of threads, especially on Reddit, I keep on reading questions like:
What if someone makes an ASIC?
Also Litecoin said that Scrypt was ASIC-resistant, can this happen to Vertcoin in the future!?!
What if a factory decides to invest a huge amount of money because for whatever reason Vertcoin becomes so valued that... bla bla bla?!?!?
The Answer Part 1 First of all I have to clarify what an ASIC is. No, I won't use any technicality except for that which can't really be avoided. An ASIC is a piece of circuitry. It is like a GPU. You plug it and it does a given job. The main difference is that an ASIC is explicitly made to do really specific work. This leads to really high performances compared to more generic hardware like GPUs or CPUs. To achieve this, an ASIC has to be built in a really specific way. This means that also the famous N value of Scrypt has to be hardcoded within. Hardcoded can be interpreted in two ways:
There entire board has the algorithm strictly implemented in the hardware. This means that N is “stored” in a non-changeable way. This is the best way to implement an ASIC, it is actually the definition of ASIC. Performance is crazy fast (e.g. Bitcoin ASICs)!
There is a specific hardware unit that stores the N value in a changeable way. However, to achieve this change a “firmware upgrade” is needed. This means that some sort of dynamism has to be put in the ASIC board and anything that is able to “adapt” directly leads to a huge decrease in performance. The board that comes out is an hybrid between an FPGA and an ASIC. These are the actual ASICs that are coming out for Litecoin right now. Why? Because they are prototypes,and easier to change if something unexpected occurs and that's why Performance/Watt ratio is good, but pure performance vs GPUs simply sucks.
Part 2a “Ok, let's assume the above is clear. How does this makes Vertcoin ASIC-resistant forever or for at least a long period of time (I mean decades)?” If you have this question in your mind, I wasn't that clear. Apologies, let me answer again: With N changing periodically the first type of ASIC is trivially killed. Why? Because, let's suppose that 1 VTC is worth, I don't know, $1.000.000. A company says “wow! Let's make an ASIC, who cares how much it costs, look at that!”. They start to make the ASIC, they design it, make a couple of prototypes, do an Alpha test, then a Beta tes..... ops N changed! We lost I don't know how much money and time. You may say they can prevent it and directly build the ASIC for the next N. Ok. Supposing that this company has the market value of Google (otherwise technology would cost so much to do a predicted-ASIC that even thinking about it would make the company immediately bankrupt), the ASIC would be viable and working for just one time frame. After that the only thing that could be done with it is throw it in the trash. Now, who is the miner that spends money for something that will work for a couple of years and then becomes completely useless? Most of all, who is the company that will actually sell them instead of using them for themselves? Because this is what actually happens, new and powerful ASICs are already there, up and working, then they are sold after they've been used to gain even more, and no one tells you. Part 2b “Ok, but what about re-programmable ASICs? You said these can adapt N!” First of all, I should leave the university just because I've written the word “re-programmable” near the word “ASIC”. I apologize to my professors and the degree committee. The point in this case resides behind two things: Memory Bandwidth and Technology progress. Many know that one of the big changes with Adaptive-N Scrypt (ANS) is the amount of memory it requires. So, many say, ok let's create an ASIC with 1 Terabyte of on board memory and bye bye ANS. Forgetting the fact that putting a huge amount of memory on a board means removing the area which should be reserved for the computational part, thus directly killing the performance; the point isn't only the amount of memory but also how fast memory interacts with the computational part. This speed is directly proportional to the amount of memory bandwidth (edit: it is not the same, it is an assumption for the sake of simplicity). This, and please use the same theory before buying the “New Superpower GPU” which has 32GB of VRAM instead of the 4GB predefined for the SAME chip, is a huge obstacle. The bandwidth will always be a bottleneck for the Scrypt algorithm, no matter what N is, and you can't simply change the bandwidth on an ASIC (nor you can on a GPU without changing the GPU itself). Moreover, and here it comes the technology progress part, you can't even think that an ASIC will easily equip the same circuitry and level of technology a GPU has. GPUs are built in packs of thousands, costs are spread! ASICs are build one by one, in many cases even “on request”: costs have to be fully payed and they are huge! Really huge! That's why, ok, an adaptive ASIC can be built, but:
It should be clear that it won't be as fast as a non adaptive ASIC (e.g. actual Bitcoin's and future Litecoin's), and I'm speaking of hundreds of times slower.
It will last for a few months before being surpassed again, not by a new ASIC version, but by a GPU! Because the GPU market is constantly progressing and is way bigger, and will always be because it is, magic words, “General Purpose”.
That's all folks. I hope I've been clear and at least a little bit funny in the explanation, I know these are hard concepts if studied deeply. That's why I've chosen such a passionate way of writing. I hope my English was good enough too, it's not my mother tongue. I could even try to make a prediction on how much Adaptive-N Scrypt will be enough. I have some rough idea, but I won't. It's “enough” to say that it will be “enough” :) P.S. When you see questions like the ones I've written, please don't avoid them, they deserve explanation and many times Reddit makes it difficult to find the answer. Simply redirect to this thread if you think it was explanatory. P.P.S. There's no need of tipping, I've written this to be clear for everyone and help the community growing. Don't tip, do your part by focusing on what you know how to do. It will surely help the community back! P.P.P.S. I promise this is the last. Obviously the first part of the second P.S. can be skipped. Tip if you want. Hahahahahah! Edit: Some typo correction. Thanks to KimDaebak
1- Primecoin is the First non Hash-Cash PoW Crypto-Currency.
"Primecoin is the first to show that a proof-of-work algorithm could exist to compute things other than cryptographic hash functions."
2- Naturally Scarce
Primecoin is naturally scarce (not artificially) -no hard limit and this is crucial for its long term continuity and its ability to adapt to market conditions.
According to the last estimations, the total supply is going to be ~55 Millions XPM. (peercointalk.org) You don't have to worry about inflation, neither facing blunt deflation (encountered in bitcoin/litecoin)
3- Very fast confirmations - 1min/block 4- Elastic supply
ING economist: "A bitcoin algorithm needs to be developed that smoothly matches money supply & demand"
This is hard-coded in Primecoin: difficulty going down gets corrected upwards because miners are encouraged to mine, having more reward subsidy.
When difficulty is dropping (i.e. miners leave the network), reward-revenue is recalculated upwards so that they come back in, ensuring the network security elastically vs price bumps.
5- Primecoin is sustainable
"Primecoin does not use a fixed cap money supply model like bitcoin as described in the primecoin paper, instead its mining output is associate with Moore's Law. It should have much slower drop of mining subsidy than bitcoin in the longer term (10+ years) thus much less affected than bitcoin in terms of risk of low security level. If Moore's law stops at some point then primecoin block subsidy would become relatively constant, rather than tending to zero as in the case of bitcoin (note though primecoin inflation rate is still tending to zero)."
"When the proof-of-work mint rate approaches zero, there is less and less incentive to mint proof-of-work blocks. Bitcoin is insecure."
"Primecoin has still good scarcity property similar to gold while network security is maintained without the need to raise transaction fee."
"Long-term bitcoin security relies mainly on transaction fees. Primecoin realistically would continue to have some subsidy long term, so is less reliant on transaction fees for security."
6- Primecoin is currently the “fairest” coin to mine
"The Primecoin algorithm is ASIC/FPGA hostile, and even GPU mining is not economically viable at the moment. While it is certainly possible to create specialized mining equipment, it is far more difficult and expensive to develop chips for high speed modular arithmetics. In contrast to SHA-256/Scrypt mining, those chips would also be multi-use and could be applied for other purposes after the next generation hits the market. In a sense, Primecoin is currently the “fairest” coin to mine, as it is purely CPU/GPU based. [...] Besides this, Primecoin already offers a number cloud mining providers, which inevitability will be the final stage in the specialized-mining-chip-race. For example, ASIC supplier KnCMiner recently announced not to produce mining rigs for household use anymore, as non-industrial grade power supply is not sufficient."
7- Primecoin can introduce new participants to the new digital economy
"In a Free Market, there's Free Will (and Creativity) as driver for Actions - and fundamentally Primecoin (almost philosophically) provides us with the ability/choice of applying our Ingenuity on Mining."
"With Primecoin, people who like to mine cryptocurrencies have a better choice to mine, to get more benefit out of the mining activity & environmental cost."
"Primecoin complements the goal here as it produces additional scientific value from the consumed energy. So people who like to mine cryptocurrency for whatever reason have a better choice to mine, to get more benefit out of the mining activity and environmental cost."
With Primecoin, you can actually and effectively Innovate and Improve on Mining Technologies and Techniques, on 2 lines: Hardware and Software. This is radically different from hash-cash PoW. In essence you have twice as much possibilities to earn revenues.
8- Proof-of-work cryptos will gradually transition toward energy-multiuse, ie providing both security & technological computing values. And Primecoin is the pioneer in this realm.
"One year after primecoin's public debut, the cryptocurrency designers are still focused on mixing hash functions with hash-cash proof-of-work, or finding ever more 'cpu friendly' proof-of-work; Primecoin's unique proof-of-work remains the first and one of the very few useful and actually interesting proof-of-work designs, that preserves the decentralization property of cryptocurrency."
9- Primecoin has anti-centralization features
Brute force hashing random numbers, under rigid guidelines(the more CPU, the stronger) doesn't work to mine primecoins - there's no known rules to find prime chains.
Elastic reward re-calibration, in real-time (reward gets immediately lower if difficulty would happen to rise)
10- Primecoin captures the Wasted Energy of Bitcoin's Algorithm - The mining is actually useful
"The reason why Primecoin-like “useful POWs” are the most promising is that, if the computations are useful enough, the currency’s “waste factor” can actually drop below zero, making the currency a public good."
"The innovative prime proof-of-work in Primecoin not only provides security and minting to the network, but also generates a special form of prime number chains of interest to mathematical research. Thus primecoin network is energy-multiuse, compared to bitcoin network. Primecoin is designed to sustain a prosperous mining market and high level of security, while maintaining good scarcity property like gold. Primecoin also processes payment transactions 10x faster than bitcoin network."
"Primecoin's proof-of-work is still pretty much the only alternative proof-of-work in production other than hashcash. By alternative proof-of-work, is meant alternative proof-of-work consensus. Interestingly, Primecoin also tries to address bitcoin's energy problem, from a different angle. In a free market, there is bound to be [the] coexistence of energy intensive currencies and energy efficient currencies, meaning, people have free will to consume energy to produce currency for example, mining gold. So Primecoin would demonstrate, such energy consumption can be made energy-multiuse, while preserving the critical decentralization property."
11- Primecoin has direct by-products
"Bitcoin hashing or mining provides no meaningful by-product whereas Primecoin delivers the chains of prime numbers. Primecoin is the first cryptocurrency with such property."
"Prime numbers are very useful. They are important in cryptography, and used in many encryption systems. The larger the list of known primes grows, and as the value of the numbers increases, the security of encryption methods utilizing them improves. Understanding prime numbers is also very important for high level mathematics, physics, and engineering. All non-prime numbers can be constructed from two or more prime numbers, yet a prime number itself cannot be created from any other number. Prime numbers are the building blocks of math. The more we understand about primes, we more we understand about mathematics. The more we understand about mathematics, the more we understand about the universe, and everything in it."
"For example, Primecoin provides financial incentive to these math research (e.g. research about the twin prime conjecture), if your theory advancement can provide a better mining algorithm for Primecoin mining. Twin prime is a special case of bi-twin chain. A bi-twin chain of length two, that is."
"With Primecoin, it's possible to do a proof-of-work consensus other than hashcash and have potential math research along with the fact that FPGA / ASIC development incentive may lead to problems being solved that have never happened before. It's possible, when you have ASIC primality testing chips, the computation capability in these fields would make a giant leap. That could also indirectly help theoretical research."
"Primecoin has delivered. It now holds 5 out of 21 world records in simultaneous prime numbers."
2 potential direct applications of the prime chains from Primecoin network:
Banking on Prime Numbers The prime number chains discovered by the Primecoin network may ultimately make RSA Encryption - and therefore banking in general - more secure by contributing longer prime numbers to use for RSA Encryption; the longer the prime number, the more difficult it is to "break" the encryption.
Hardware Testing & Innovation Since the early days of computing, programs for discovering prime numbers have been developed as a way to test new hardware These by-products include improved computer processors and hardware components, which can be applied to improve computer models used in the science, medical, and engineering industry.
12- Primecoin has been developed by Sunny King, one of the most talented crypto-technologists of the rank of Satoshi Nakamoto
Sunny King along with his team continues to grow Primecoin network and is currently developing a Sidechain technology for Primecoin, that is a common infrastructure to make it easier for developers to create decentralized and distributed data applications (of the sort of: namecoin, storj, peershare, datacoin )
_trendspotter at /goodcoin brought up an evaluation we can use to at least measure, rate, or review cryptocurrency based on how good they are. Here at scamcoin I think we should come up the evaluation on how BAD these guys are, just the opposite of his scale. I suggest you should use this guide also as a reference when you are looking to INVEST in a cryptocurrency. If you guys have suggestions/ideas feel free to bring it up. It is no way being objective but at least we can try. Power to the people. The problem I still trying to sort out is to weight some features properly: Anyway, the proposal Scammy Scale Rating with simple Yes or No: 1) NOT de-centralize & Not open source 2) No open-source at the release 3) "Public offering" period where one has to pay to mine early 4) No fair launch announcement, unreasonable pre-mine and/or any insta-mine 5) Extremely low starting difficulty 6) No adoption among merchants/vendors/region/country. 7) No trading at big exchanges (e.g. not on BTC-e) 8) Not offer any new feature. Clonecoins or Litecoin forking 9) Bad developer supports, lack of community or forum 10) Releasing bad software that impedes certain users from using/mining the coin. Or "faulty" start, "nodes" problem 11) Slow transaction or confirmation time 12) Short block time when mining 13) Inflated to billion of shares/coins or unreasonable supplies 14) Pseudo mumbo jumbo descriptions of the cryptocurrency 15) Poor official website, hastily done 16) No anonymity support (no Zerocoin implementation) 17) Weak security, vulnerable to 51% attack (No POS or Proof of Stake) 18) Aggressive marketing campaign, hijacking forums and threads, tons of giveaways and faucets 19) Bloat future blockchain, e.g. 2GB-60-100GB wallet you have to update even though your wallet has 2 ABC coin. 20) Weak to ASIC,GPU,FPGA miners, BotNet, or does not give everyone at least a fair chance to mine 21) Reversible transaction -- Not sure if I should leave this out 22) Low mining profitability (vs mining Bitcoin) 23) Designed to be inflationary nature 24) No interest rate of earning coin per year 25) No Multi-hashing algorithms 26) Recent release 27) Pump and dump announcements (Twitter, Facebook, subreddits or forums) associated with said cryptocurrency 28) "Rebooting" the coin, or "coin makeover" to make it fair mining/distribution again 29) Shady developers' history and/or shady major fund backers' history/intention 30) No trendsetter or no noise around the web. Use Google Trend as a way to monitor buzzes. Example:http://www.google.com/trends/explore#q=quark%20coin%2C%20bitcoin&cmpt=q 31) Not much liquidity and being dependent. How dependent of that alt-coin to that of Bitcoin? Meaning, if Bitcoin goes down 20% in value, will it also dip 20% or more? 32) Unknown or less coins' volume/share percentage jumped through the roof while other known coins have modest or small gain. Example: SexCoin jumped 1200% in a single day while Bitcoin gained 3.8% 33) "Pay first, deliver product [Bitcoin 2.0] later" - essentially investors are convinced they have to pay first in USD/bitcoin because they are promised by the developers/company to have an "EARLY START" or "EARLY SHARES" or "PRE-SHARES" on the best next-generation "Bitcoin 2.0" coin that will make Bitcoin obsolete and will be the next biggest thing in the universe. Except for the part where "the biggest thing in the universe" is nowhere to be seen. 34) Interoperability 35) Purely Proof-of-Stake (POS) coins We then can further breakdown and give weigh point to each feature and start ranking them. For example: CrappyCoin : 10 yes, 15 No. A simple solution is each Yes = 1 point and each No = 0 point. However, subjectively some features should be weight more than others. I should point how to merchant adoption and trading/buy/sell at big exchanges, multi-hashing and fair mining for everyone should be scored higher. It goes hand-in-hand with its release date. Feel free to discuss.
A FPGA opensource miner has just been released running at 80Mhps but at a cost of $585. The efficiency is stated below quoted from a post in the thread.
At 80 MHps, I will need at least 3 of these to achieve a single 5830 hashrate. That is $595.-x 3 = $1785.- at full price, vs. $190.- for the 5830. Giving the 5830 is consuming $11.- a month in electricity, and assuming this board will consume zero electricity, it will take more than 145 months, or 12 years to recover the investment, always comparing to a 5830.
Apologies but no more development information will be posted. I've been offered a 25% share from someone that owns 2 FPGA clusters. If you haven't seen that type of hardware before think a 156 FPGAs per machine.
From those posts what we can understand is that the factors that affect FPGA now are high procurement cost, low running cost and ease of scalability . What this means is that with the increasing total hash rate of the network (30Ghash/day last difficultly adjustment) the question becomes when would the difficulty render GPU inefficient in contrast to running cost? Remember to take into account FPGAs are usually run in clusters and even though it would not be beneficial to buy one outright, those who have access to FPGA are the first movers and eventual dominant forces of the mining market. Of course, in the end, ASIC is where it's at. Anyone? =D Edit: read more stuff, added info.
FPGA Bitcoin Mining. At the foundation of block creation and mining is the calculation of this digital signature. Different cryptocurrencies use different approaches to generate the signature. For the most popular cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, the signature is calculated using a cryptographic hashing function. For those unfamiliar with cryptographic hashes, hashes calculate a fixed-length unique ... What's wrong with CPU, GPU and ASIC. FPGA appeared as an alternative to central processors and video cards, which was enough for miners at first. Their main advantage was that CPU or graphics processor could be switched to another blockchain project, without limiting to one “branch”. Miner formed an investment portfolio of several cryptocurrencies and felt safe in the stormy and volatile ... Open Source FPGA Bitcoin Miner. From Bitcoin Wiki. Jump to: navigation, search. A miner that makes use of a compatible FPGA Board. The miner works either in a mining pool or solo. This is the first open source FPGA Bitcoin miner. It was released on May 20, 2011. Contents. 1 Software needed; 2 Compiling. 2.1 Altera; 2.2 Changing the clock speed; 3 Programming the FPGA. 3.1 Altera; 3.2 Using ... 2. FPGA. As most people are well aware of, FPGA stands for Field-Programmable Gate Array. In the bitcoin world, these devices were quite popular among miners once GPU mining became far too ... I'm interested in solo mining on Litecoin. Where can I learn about (or what math is required) two tell if this is feasible/profitable? Currently I have 30+ CPUs running as solo miners for 40 hours...
Do you guys think FGPA's will one day take over GPU Mining? If certain coins do not change algorithms, we will see the dominance of FPGA. Today we take a look at a few coins that potentially have ... FPGA Miner for Cryptocurrency Mining: Why Use FPGA for Mining? FPGA vs GPU vs ASIC Explained - Duration: 7:56. FPGA Guide 626 ... ELE 432- FPGA Bitcoin Miner - Duration: 4:08. Burak 14,597 views ... ELE 432- FPGA Bitcoin Miner Burak. Loading... Unsubscribe from Burak? ... The Outlook on Cryptocurrency Mining - GPU vs ASIC vs FPGA - Duration: 19:57. VoskCoin 31,788 views. 19:57. FPGA Project ... Send Your Mining Rig Pics in Discord be featured in upcoming Community Mining Rigs Episodes! Buy GPU's on Amazon - https://geni.us/46Bo1 Favorite GPU For Mining: https://geni.us/MaOtD VoskCoin livestream on the Outlook on Cryptocurrency Mining - GPU vs ASIC vs FPGA with Q&A. Text version of todays video - http://bit.ly/2LaZA5R -- The lands...